The Dynamic Duo – P&K’s Legacy
David R. Peryam (1915 – 1992) & Beverley J. Kroll (1929 – 2021) had a passion to measure and understand consumer preferences and the reasons behind these preferences. Both were prolific contributors to the field of Sensory Science. David, known as the ‘Father of Sensory Evaluation’ and Beverley, an astute business woman, joined forces and together founded P&K Research Corporation.
WHERE IT ALL BEGAN
They met at the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute (QMFCI) in Chicago. During that time, David Peryam, a psychologist, had been hired to head the Food Acceptance Research Branch. Beverley Kroll was assisting the operations of the Food Acceptance Testing Laboratories.
Expert judgement, trained panels and consumer judgement were used to develop quality specifications for Army rations and testing was conducted in laboratories primarily using the preference method.
The first panel booths for food product sensory evaluation in the United States (1945-1957).
TRADITIONAL HEDONIC SCALE
Questionnaire used for food preferences with hedonic scale method.
One of the greatest accomplishments from the Food Acceptance Branch was the development of the 9-point hedonic scale. The scale length was determined experimentally (5, 7, 9, and 11). All proved similar in discrimination, but the 9-point length resulted in greater repeatability and due to the limitations of paper size and fixed pitch typewriters, the nine point was the scale of choice.
The 9-point scale originally was tested conceptually – directing the test subject to focus their attention toward their feeling about the food, and later with actual stimuli.